The total laryngectomy is a standard procedure of laryngeal carcinoma treatment which leaves multiple persistent consequences on a laryngectomized person. After laryngectomy, all of patients cannot speak loudly, and 10–58% patients have a dysphagia. In such changed anatomical condition, the esophagus has a key function in two of three primary approaches to voice—speech rehabilitation of laryngectomized patients: esophageal and tracheoesophageal speech therapy method because one of these is the only acceptable solution of substitute alaryngeal speech. In esophageal speech, the esophagus has the role of speech air reservoirs since the respiratory and digestive pathways are permanently separated after the procedure. In the production of tracheoesophageal speech, the tracheoesophageal fistula and the esophagus allow the recommunication of these pathways and the use of air from the lungs for speech. There are several prerequisites for successful esophageal and tracheoesophageal speech. After tracheoesophageal puncture and insertion, the tracheoesophageal prosthesis may occur different complications in the early or late postoperative period in 10–60% of patients. The quality of alaryngeal voice is very different from the quality of laryngeal voice, but allows communication to laryngectomees.